Obeying Laws or Regulations

4. See Hershovitz, Scott, The Authority of Law, in The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Law 65–75 (Marble, A. ed., 2012)Google Scholar, for the only critical review of the standard view. Some recent work in philosophy of law claims to clarify what it means to obey the law, if only to compare it to other possible reactions to the law, but in each case it turns out that the explanandum is something else. For example, William Edmundson contrasts obedience to the law with „law-abiding,“ even though he does not explain either concept; He says that complying with the law partly means „obeying it,“ but the concept of compliance remains unexplained. In terms of obedience to the law, it oscillates between what I call (below) conformity to reason and views of conformity to reason. See Edmundson, William, The Virtue of Law-Abidance, 4 Philosophers` Imprint 1, 2–3 (2006)Google Scholar. Another example is Fred Schauer, who suggests in his recent book addressing questions such as „What exactly does it mean to follow or obey the law?“ and „Is every act in accordance with the law also an act of obedience to the law?“, The Force of Law (2015), at 6, questions that are indeed central to this essay. In the end, however, without argument, Id.

at 194 n.18, he adopts the „conventional“ view of obedience to the law, which is exactly the standard view I criticize below. Finally, Margaret Gilbert acknowledges that the default view is inadequate, but does not suggest which account it should override. See A Theory of Political Obligation (2006), pp. 210-211. There is a wonderfully solid literature in moral and political philosophy on the nature of political obligation and, in particular, the fair play argument. For McManus, the key question here is whether the laws to which we are subject are really constitutive of a reasonably just, mutually beneficial collaborative society. This creates an obligation to take your fair share of the burden of maintaining such a community. Thus, a general obligation to obey the law is based on the principle of fair play – doing your part to maintain a community that you benefit from by others who make theirs.

When employees follow rules and regulations, consumers benefit too. The first benefit is to work with happier and less stressed employees when dealing with the company. The second benefit is that employees feel safe when working with the company. Both lead to customer satisfaction and ultimately customer loyalty. When customers are satisfied, fewer complaints need to be addressed, which improves company morale and reduces costs for maintenance issues. It reduces product returns and increases profits, as returns, replenishment, and dealing with dissatisfied customers come at a financial cost. Reducing and minimizing these costs helps increase overall profits. The Prime Minister and his colleagues have therefore exaggerated the argument that McManus is somehow advocating chaos by suggesting that there may be times when disregard for unjust laws is justified. As a civil rights activist, he should know more. 35.

Fed. R. Civ., p. 12(b)(6). The rule is an interesting case because it contains a description of the plot (in this case, an omission) that the law orders the plaintiff, the defendant (to file a motion) and the judge (to dismiss a case) to refer to the plaintiff`s conduct in bringing an action. Due to numerous court rulings in state and federal courts, the First Amendment now leaves religious organizations free to discriminate against anyone they call minister. According to the Court, the right to discrimination on the grounds of age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, race and all other anti-discrimination laws belong to religions. This rule is called the ministerial exception, which is an affirmative defence. It generally protects employers rather than employees because the case never goes to court if the positive defence is satisfied. On the other hand, given the extraordinary powers of the state, the conditions under which I am obliged must certainly be stronger than simply being a member of this society. Shouldn`t the laws themselves be just? Or, to return to a point I raised above, do we not only have a general political obligation when our political community is indeed reasonably fair in the broad sense? But is this really a viable norm for the imperfect world we live in? Doesn`t this mean that political engagement is fundamentally impossible? (Of course, this is a very welcome conclusion for anarchists!) It is hard to imagine a peaceful America that gives religions a constitutional or legal right to discriminate against all kinds of people.

A system that gives them tax advantages at the same time. Church status with the IRS offers huge benefits to churches, allowing churches to keep a lot of information about them private. A whistleblower recently complained that the confidentiality of tax laws allowed Latter-day Saints to earn $100 billion in a supposedly tax-exempt mutual fund that required the funds to be distributed. 5. One might think that, although respect for the law has received little attention from philosophers, another closely related topic has produced a vast body of literature that is of obvious relevance here. Inspired by some of Wittgenstein`s remarks, many philosophers of the past thirty years have debated what it means to „follow a rule.“ See, for example: Saul Kripke, Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language (1982); Boghossian, P.A., The Rule-Following Considerations, 98 Mind 507 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Pettit, Philip, The Reality of Compliance, 99 Mind 1 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Wright, Crispin, Rule-follow without reasons: Wittgenstein`s quietism and the constitutive question, 20 ratio 481 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. In fact, some of the views discussed here have an affinity with some found in this literature. However, the debate about the nature of rule keeping is largely unrelated to a discussion of obedience and disobedience to the law, since the term „rule“ in this debate has little in common with the concept of law as traditionally used by philosophers and jurists. For example, it is widely accepted that a „rule“ can have „infinite content“, Boghossian, Paul, Blind Rule-Following, in Mind, Meaning, and Knowledge 32 (Coliva, Annalisa ed., 2012)Google Scholar, that is, it can be expressed in countless acceptable ways. However, laws exist at least in part because they are intentionally established or established, and therefore often have canonical wording that delimits the range of reasonable interpretations they can give.

There is also a broad consensus in this debate that some sort of „commitment“ or „acceptance“ of the rule is necessary to follow it. But, as we shall see, obeying the law does not require any such thing, but even requires that such an obligation is not necessary: it must be possible, for example, to obey an unjust law. The very idea of civil disobedience actually presupposes this. And there are other types of cases; For example, it must be possible for an alien to obey the laws of a State to which he owes no loyalty. The teacher points out to the class that people have a number of reasons for obeying the law. Some relate to self-interest, others concern others, and others concern themselves with the well-being of society as a whole (see note below). LGBTQI people are a particular object of discrimination. Dissenting judges in same-sex marriage case, Obergefell v. Hodges, urged the protection of anti-homosexual conscience. In the next term, the Supreme Court will hear a case, Fulton v. Philadelphia, in which Philadelphia refused to fund Catholic adoption agencies because they discriminated against same-sex couples in child placement. Philadelphia rightly wants the same anti-discrimination laws to apply to everyone.

The religious freedom demanded in this case gives Catholics the opportunity to win a case in which Smith is overthrown, and they earn the right to determine the law in their own way, rather than obey the law as it is. There is no doubt that employees must comply with the law.

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